The analysis of scientific Math playground fractions works showed that the ways of penetration of common words into economic terminology are diverse, including: their use in direct nominal meaning; in a new special meaning, arises on the basis of one of the meanings of polysemantic words without changing their morphological structure; metaphorical transfer of the meaning of a common word: bull n bull; ballon v inflate (balloon) / raise the share price and the like.
One of the productive ways of forming English economic terminology is conversion, in particular: the substance associated with the highest value of a noun for the purpose of nomination. Special attention should be paid to conversion formations – nouns, formed from verbs with postpositive. For example, bail – out n the way out of economic difficulties with someone else’s help; check-in n the place where consumers pay for the goods in a supermarket; takeover n mergers of companies; write-down n price reduction, cost reduction, partial write-off from the account; write-up n price increase, cost reduction, entry in the account register, increasing cost, attribute to the plan, etc., are worth special attention.
English economic terminology is a complex mechanism in which words borrowed from other terminology systems function: biology (to survive n to survive; mature adj mature, highly developed; hybrid adj hybrid, that including different elements), medicine (injection n entry, contribution (for example, money into economy) body n organ, organization, society; essence, content (document); dead adj inactive, dead adj, stagnation; donor n person, donation, funded organization), politics and law (crisis n crisis; law n law; legal adj legal; intervention n intervention;), statistics (bound n evaluation, limit, boundary; coefficient n coefficient;), mathematics (derivative n derivative; constant n constant value; ratio n ratio; matrix n matrix), etc.). English economic terminology contains a large number of internationalism (boss, broker, contract, partner, firm, marketing, credit, assortment, finance, management, business, etc.), which are its most dynamic part.
The high frequency of use of complex economic terminological units necessitated the elimination of acronyms and abbreviations. Our analysis of linguistic research has shown that by the method of formation we distinguish: a) letter abbreviations; b) components and partial abbreviations consisting of a letter or syllable and a full word; c) mixed abbreviations consisting of letters or syllables, signs and numbers; d) truncated words. According to the method of use, there are distinguished: a) lexical, which are full units of professional oral and written communication; b) graphic, which have no sound form, are not words, have no grammatical categories and are used only in written speech. In the oral form, graphic math playground geometry abbreviations are the full form of words or phrases that they reflect. The analysis of the examined corpus of economic terms revealed all the above types of classification, indicates certain universal regularities in the formation of abbreviations. For example: letter terms (ltd – limited – with limited liability; VAT – value-added tax – value-added tax); component and partial terms (Co – company – company; Incoterms – International Commercial Terms – internationally accepted definitions of commercial terms most commonly found in foreign trade contracts; ecoefficiency – economic efficiency – economic efficiency; Fco – franco – franco); mixed (US $ United States dollar – US dollar; £ cash – cash, expressed in pounds sterling) truncated words (advert – advert – advertisement; memo – memorandum – memo), etc.). Our study of terminological abbreviations determined their composition taking into account the number of letters and characters: unambiguous abbreviations: I → investment – investment; i → interest rates – interest rates; ambiguous abbreviations: WP → World Price – world price; L / C → Letter of Credit – letter of credit; three-digit abbreviations: CAP → Common Agricultural Policy – Common Agricultural Policy; WTO → World Trade Organization – World Trade Organization; four-digit abbreviations: IATT → International Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – International Agreement on Trade and Tariffs. Five-digit and six-digit (COMEX → Commodity Exchange – New York Mercantile Exchange; SEDOL → Stock Exchange Daily Official List – Stock Exchange Daily Price Bulletin; ECOSOC → Economic & Social Council – UN Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC) are irregular parts for economic terminology.